EFFECT OF LOW LEVEL OF OZONE ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF BOTRYTIS ACLADA IN VITRO

Pengaruh Ozon Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan Botrytis aclada in Vitro

 

Hartati Oktarina

 

ABSTRAK

Penyakit pasca panen yang disebabkan oleh mikroba menyebabkan kerugian yang sangat besar setiap tahunnya. Pada pertanian konvensional, fungisida sudah digunakan selama bertahun-tahun untuk mengendalikan patogen pada tanaman. Sebagaimana telah diketahui, penggunaan bahan kimia secara terus menerus dapat berdampak buruk terhadap lingkungan dan menyebabkan resistensi. Ozon telah dianjurkan oleh para ahli sebagai alternatif pengendalian penggunaan bahan sintetik pada pengawetan bahan makanan karena ozon tidak meninggalkan residu pada bahan simpanan sehingga lebih aman untuk dikonsumsi. Penelitian ini bertujuan ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh ozon pada konsentrasi rendah (180 ppb) terhadap perkembangan koloni dan spora yang dihasilkan oleh Botrytis aclada secara in vitro. Dua tipe inokulum digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah miselia dan spora. Keduanya merupakan penyebab kerusakan pada bahan simpanan. Jamur yang diuji disimpan di dalam kotak yang dialiri ozon dengan suhu 7-8oC selama 14 hari. Pengamatan terhadap perkembangan koloni dilakukan dengan mengukur diameter koloni, sementara spora yang dihasilkan diamati pada hari ke 14 masa inkubasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemaparan ozon pada konsentrasi 180 ppb selama 14 hari tidak menurunkan perkembangan koloni B. aclada, tetapi efektif mengurangi jumlah spora yang dihasilkan.

Kata kunci: ozon, botrytis aclada, in vitro


INTRODUCTION

Infection caused by micro-organisms, fungi and/or bacteria, on fruits and vegetables occur both before and after harvest. The harvested product may be infected by a pathogen under field conditions or during transit and storage. Jobling (2000) claimed that losses during the latter reach 20% of the total crop. Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium digitatum and Penicilium italicum are common fungi that occurred on fresh produce in storage (Golan, 2001).

Fungicides have been used for decades to control spoilage in con-ventional agriculture. It is generally known that long term use of chemical would harm the environment and bring resistance to organisms. Increasing public concern over the use of conventional fungicide due to health issues has prompted investigations to find alternative environmentally friendly control agent that might be used to suppress disease development on the storage.

Studies about the use of ozone to control microorganisms in the storage and/or transit have been conducted by researchers. Researchers with similar findings reported that ozone treatments significantly reduced the extent of berry decay caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Sarig, et al. 1996), Botrytis cinerea on strawberries (Perez et al. 1999), Lasiodiplodia sp. and Cladosporium sp. on longan fruit (Whangchai et al. 2005), and black spot (Alternaria alternate) and anthracnose rot (Colletotrichum coccodes) of tomato (Tzortzakis, et al. 2008). Advantages are gained by employing ozone in storage to eliminate fungi spoilage on the products. Unlike chemicals, ozone treatment has no residue remain on the products. In addition, ozone eliminates odor in storage rooms (Suslow, 1998).

Even though it is known that ozone sanitizes the storage environment to prevent microbial spoilage at certain level, the mode of action of ozone on fungi is not certain. However, Hibben and Stotzky (1969) suggested that spore morphology, moisture content and substrate play an important role. In addition, Krause & Weidensaul (1978) stated that “Since ozone attacks cellular membranes of higher plants, perhaps fungal membranes could be similarly affected”. To understand the effect of ozone on growth of food spoilage fungi, further research is needed.

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